Mario Vargas Llosa

Mario Vargas Llosa and 150 leaders from 23 countries advocate for democracy and against authoritarianism and statism in times of the coronavirus. Among many others, the manifesto is signed: Mario Vargas Llosa, the ex-presidents Aznar, Zedillo, Macri, Uribe, Sanguinetti, Lacalle, Cristiani and Franco.

It is also signed by an outstanding group of intellectuals, businessmen and political leaders from Europe, Latin America and the United States.


We, the undersigned, share the concern about the covid-19 pandemic that has caused a large number of infections and death throughout the world, and we extend our solidarity to the families in mourning.

While public and private healthcare employees fight the coronavirus valiantly, many governments take measures that indefinitely restrict basic freedoms and rights. Instead of some understandable restrictions on freedom, in several countries there is confinement with few exceptions, the impossibility of working and producing, and the manipulation of information.

Some governments have identified an opportunity to arrogate excessive power to themselves. They have suspended the rule of law and even representative democracy and the justice system. In the dictatorships of Venezuela, Cuba and Nicaragua the pandemic serves as a pretext to increase political persecution and oppression. In Spain and Argentina, leaders with a marked ideological bias intend to use the harsh circumstances to monopolize political and economic prerogatives that citizens would resolutely reject in another context. In Mexico, the pressure against private companies intensifies and the Puebla Group is used to attack governments of different signs.

On both sides of the Atlantic, statism, interventionism and populism resurface with an impetus that suggests a change of model away from liberal democracy and the market economy.

We want to strongly state that this crisis must not be faced by sacrificing the rights and freedoms that it has cost a lot to achieve. We reject the false dilemma that these circumstances force us to choose between authoritarianism and insecurity, between the Philanthropic Ogre and death. Madrid, April 2020


Vargas Llosa, Mario. Nobel Prize for Literature, President International Freedom Foundation (FIL), Peru.

Aznar, José María. Former President, Spain.

Macri, Mauricio. Former President, Argentina.

Zedillo, Ernesto. Former President, Mexico.

Uribe Vélez, Álvaro. Former President, Colombia.

Lacalle, Luis Alberto. Former President, Uruguay.

Sanguinetti, Julio María. Former President, Uruguay.

Cristiani, Alfredo. Former President, El Salvador.

Franco, Federico. Former President, Paraguay.

Machado, María Corina. Coordinator Vente Venezuela, Venezuela.

Krauze, Enrique. Historian, Mexico.

Castañeda, Jorge. Former Secretary of Foreign Relations, Mexico.

Savater, Fernando. Philosopher and writer, Spain.

Escohotado, Antonio. Philosopher and essayist, Spain.

Edwards, Jorge. Writer, Chile.

Lasso, Guillermo. Candidate for President, Ecuador.

Ibáñez, Nicolás. Businessman, Chile.

Gutiérrez, Dionisio. Businessman, Guatemala.

Larroulet, Cristián. Chief Presidential Advisory, Chile.

Roemmers, Alejandro. Businessman, Argentina.

Rivera, Albert. Lawyer. Former candidate for President, Spain.

Zanatta, Loris. Historian, Italy.

Vargas Llosa, Álvaro. Writer and journalist, Peru.

Bongiovanni, Gerardo. Fundación Libertad, Argentina.

Bullrich, Patricia. Former Minister of Security, Argentina.

Álvarez de Toledo, Cayetana. PP spokesman, Spain, Spain.

Álvarez, Gloria. Political scientist, Guatemala.

Kaiser, Axel. Political analyst, Chile.

Ortiz Antelo, Oscar. Senator, Bolivia.

Álvarez-Calderón, Diana. Former Minister of Culture, Peru.

Aguinis, Marcos. Writer, Argentina.

Álvarez, Fernando. Global Foundation, Argentina.

Benegas Lynch (h), Alberto. Economist, Argentina.

Bongiovanni, Alejandro. Fundación Libertad, Argentina.

Cachanosky, Roberto. Journalist, Argentina.

Castro, Walter. Economist, Argentina.

Lopérfido, Darío. Former Secretary of Culture, Argentina.

López Murphy, Ricardo. Former Minister of Defense and Economy, Argentina.

Marty, Antonella. Atlas Network, Argentina.

Miter, Miguel. Businessman, Argentina.

Pereyra, Daniel. Businessman, Argentina.

Rambeaud, Carolina. Former Legislator, Argentina.

Tagle, Manuel. Businessman, Argentina.

Kempff Suárez, Manfredo. Academic, Bolivia.

Landivar, María Lourdes. Senator, Bolivia.

Beltrão, Hélio. Mises Institute, economist, Brazil.

From Cesaro, Pedro. IEE Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Gomes, Ricardo. RELIAL, Brazil. Schüler, Fernando.

Consultant, Brazil. Errázuriz, Jorge. Businessman, Chile.

Guzmán, Cecilia. G-V cultural management, Chile.

Kast, Felipe. former Minister of Planning, Chile.

Larraín, Luis. former Minister of Planning, Chile.

Montes, Leonidas. Economist, Chile.

Peñafiel, Renato. Businessman, Chile.

Rincon, Rafael. Foundation for Progress, Chile.

Rojas, Mauricio. Former Minister, historian, Chile.

Santa Cruz, Lucia. Historian, Chile.

Selume, Jorge. Businessman, Chile.

Apuleyo Mendoza, Plinio. Writer, Colombia.

Prieto Botero, Marcela. Political scientist, Colombia.

Álvarez Araya, Óscar. Former Ambassador, Costa Rica.

Egloff, Enrique J. Businessman, Costa Rica.

Higaldo, Juan Carlos. Political analyst, Costa Rica.

Molina and Morejon, Hilda. Medical, Cuba.

Montaner, Carlos Alberto. Writer, Cuba.

Valdés, Dagoberto. Think Tank Coexistence, Cuba.

Werlau, Maria. Cuba Archive, Cuba.

Baquerizo, Iván. Businessman, Ecuador.

Calderón, Gabriela. Researcher and columnist, Ecuador.

from Ampuero, Dora. Ecuadorian Institute of Political Economy, Ecuador.

Chafuen, Alejandro. Acton Institute, USA

Lousteau, Guillermo. Lawyer, PhD., USA

Vasquez, Ian. Cato Institute, USA

Murray Meza, Roberto. Businessman, El Salvador.

Aguirre, Esperanza. Former President of the Community of Madrid, Spain.

Arrufat, Miguel. Businessman, Spain.

Bernal, Enrique. Businessman, Spain.

Bernaldo de Quirós, Lorenzo, Economist, Freemarket, Spain.

Well, Juan Ignacio. Businessman, Spain.

Cardó, Andrés. Businessman, Spain.

Cortés, Miguel Ángel. Former Secretary of State for Culture, Spain.

from Azúa, Félix. Writer, Spain.

Ten, Rosa. Co-founder of UPyD, Spain.

Elosua, Marcelino. Businessman, Spain.

Fernández-Lasquetty, Javier. Minister of Finance of the Community of Madrid, Spain.

Hernán, Félix. Businessman, Spain. Huarte, Juan Félix. Businessman, Spain

Huerta de Soto, Jesús. Economist, professor, Spain.

Izquierdo Juárez, Pablo. Fundación Iberoamérica Europa Cipie, Spain.

Lacalle, Daniel. Economist, Spain.

Marcos Dominguez, Pilar. Deputy, Spain.

Melgarejo, Juan Manuel. Businessman, Spain.

Melián Marrero, Gonzalo. University of the Hesperides and director of OMMA, Spain.

Meseguer, José Luis. Businessman, Spain.

Nasarre, Eugenio. Politician, Spain.

Pérez-Castro Ellendt, Enrique. Doctor, Spain.

Pomés, Julio. Civism, Spain.

Rallo, Juan Ramón. Economist, Spain.

Rico, Maite. Journalist, Spain.

Rodríguez Braun, Carlos. Economist, journalist and professor, Spain.

Schwartz, Pedro. Economist, Spain.

Castillo Arenales, Ricardo. UFM, Guatemala.

Cole, Julio H. UFM, Guatemala.

Sabino, Carlos. Doctor in Social Sciences, professor at UFM, Guatemala.

Peña Painting, Guillermo. Eléutera Foundation, Honduras.

Debenedetti, Franco. Businessman, Italy.

Mazzone, Massimo. Businessman, Italy.

Mingardi, Alberto. Bruno Leoni Institute, Italy.

Panebianco, Angelo. Political scientist and professor emeritus in Political Science, University of Bologna, Italy.

Aspe, Pedro. Economist, former Secretary of Finance and Public Credit, Mexico.

Market, Silvia. RELIAL, Mexico.

Pantoja, Bertha. Caminos de Libertad, Mexico.

Salinas León, Roberto. Atlas Network, Mexico.

Van Tienhoven, Alexander. Entrepreneur, Mexico.

Valenti, Mario. Businessman, Nicaragua.

Vaughan, Barney. Businessman, Nicaragua.

Brenes, Roberto. Businessman, Panama.

Rivas, Andy. Consultant, Paraguay.

Álvarez, Yesenia. Political Institute for Freedom (IPL), Peru.

Añaños, Carlos. President of the Pikimachay Board of Trustees, Peru.

Cateriano, Pedro. Lawyer, former Minister of Defense, Peru.

Cordova, Daniel. Economist, Peru.

Gamarra Ugaz, Carlos. Lawyer, former Minister of Justice, Peru.

Ghersi, Enrique. Lawyer and politician, Peru

Huertas, Mávila. Journalist, Peru.

Palacios, Rosa María. Journalist, Peru.

Vega Llona, ​​Ricardo. Businessman, Peru.

Pilip, Ivan. Economist, former Minister of Finance and Education, Czech Republic.

Bisonó, Ito. Deputy, Dominican Republic.

Azzini, Daniel. Businessman, Uruguay.

Caumont, Jorge. Economist and editorialist, Uruguay.

Earthenware, Ruben. Writer, Uruguay.

Alfonzo, Rafael. Businessman, Venezuela.

Burelli, Cristina. V5Initiative, Venezuela.

García Mendoza, Oscar. Businessman, Venezuela.

Granier, Marcel. Businessman, Venezuela.

Pebble, Rocío. CEDICE Libertad, Venezuela.

Ledezma, Antonio. Former Mayor of Caracas, Venezuela.

López Gil, Leopoldo. National Coordinator Popular Will, Venezuela.

Mendoza de López, Antonieta. Activist, Venezuela.

Polesel, Tiziana. CEDICE Libertad, Venezuela.

Zuloaga, Carlos. Businessman, Venezuela.

Zuloaga, Guillermo. Businessman, Venezuela.

If you want to adhere to the manifesto send an email to (email protected)

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