This data shows that cultural employment continues to rise, chaining increases since the last five years and placing it at levels similar to the years before the economic crisis.
This is a job with a higher proportion of men, 60.9% (420.1 thousand) compared to 39.1% of women (270.2 thousand). By age groups, the proportion of employed persons is slightly higher in young ages. In addition, it is also characterized by higher than average academic training, presenting higher rates of higher education, 69.3% compared to those observed in the national group, 42.9%.
69.9% of cultural employment is salaried, a figure lower than that observed in the total Spanish employed population that stands at 84%.
The Autonomous Communities with the largest population dedicated to cultural activities are Madrid, with 5.4% and Catalonia, with 4.4%.
The number of cultural companies grows
In 2018, the number of companies whose main activity is culture increased 3.6%, reaching 122,673 companies. This figure represents 3.7% of the total number of companies included in the Central Business Directory of the National Statistics Institute. Most of them, 82.2%, 100,874, correspond to industry or service activities, such as publishing, library, archives, museums, cinematographic, video, radio and television activities, or artistic and entertainment among others, and the remaining 17.8%, 21,799, with activities related to trade or rental of cultural property.
It should be noted that 64.7% are companies without employees, 28.7% of small size, from 1 to 5 workers, 6% have 6 to 49 employees and the remaining 0.6% are larger companies, from 50 employees onwards.
They are concentrated in the autonomous communities of Andalusia, 13.2%; Catalonia, 20.1%; Valencian Community, 9.6% and in the Community of Madrid, 22%.
Household cultural consumption falls 4.4%
In 2018, household spending on cultural goods and services amounted to 12,714.3 million euros and represents 2.3% of the total estimated expenditure on goods and services. This amount represents an interannual decrease of 4.4%.
The average expenditure per household linked to culture stood at 682.5 euros last year and the average expenditure per person reached 274.6 euros per year (4.8% less than the previous year). The destination of this cultural expenditure was mainly: books (14.7%), attendance at shows (cinemas, theaters and others) (12.8%) and mobile and Internet-related services (22.5%).
The average expenditure per person takes its maximum value in municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. It is above average in the Autonomous Communities of the Balearic Islands (€ 280.7), Castilla y León (€ 314.3), Valencian Community (€ 286.3), Community of Madrid (€ 347.2), Region of Murcia (€ 312.7), Community of Madrid (€ 321.2), Region of Murcia (€ 275.8) and La Rioja (€ 275.5). In the Autonomous Community of Navarra, with € 348.7, it is where more is spent on culture per person.
Tourism keeps culture as a prominent attraction. Thus, the statistical results indicate that 14.5% of the total trips made in 2018 for leisure, recreation or vacations of residents in Spain were initiated mainly for cultural reasons. To these trips must be added the international tourist tickets that are made mainly for cultural reasons, 12.6 million in 2018, 17.5% of the total trips made for leisure, recreation or vacations of this group.
Indicators of the total expenditure associated with trips made mainly for cultural reasons are also offered, which amounted, in 2018, to 7,726.4 million euros for residents in Spain and 13,341.1 million euros for international tourist tickets . In one of every four trips of residents, 24.2%, cultural activities were carried out, a figure that is 37.2% among foreigners.
Economic contribution of culture
The Statistical Yearbook collects the results of the Culture Satellite Account in Spain which indicate that, in 2017, the contribution of the cultural sector to Spanish GDP stood at 3.2%, considering the set of economic activities linked to intellectual property.
Against this contribution, the liquidated public financing from the General State Administration stood at 678 million euros (2.6% more than in 2016), the Autonomous Administration at 1,144 million (+ 8.5%) and Local Administration in 3,270 million euros (+ 6.1%). Therefore, the three administrations increased their financing in 2017. It stands out that these figures represent, in terms of GDP, 0.06%, 0.10% and 0.28%, respectively.
The number of visitors to museums grows 9.2% in the last two years.
The Yearbook of Cultural Statistics includes the biennial statistics of Museums and Museum Collections, prepared by the Ministry of Culture and Sports in collaboration with the Ministry of Defense, National Heritage and the Autonomous Communities and Cities.
After analyzing data from 1,481 museum institutions, it is concluded that they received 65.4 million visitors in 2018, a figure that represents an increase of 9.2% compared to 2016.
The average number of visits per open museum, 45,929, reached its maximum in the types of Contemporary Art and Fine Arts.